The contract has a two-year base period with three one-year options, and will be worth US$36 million ($50 million) if all options are exercised within the agreement.
Leidos will design, build and test a three-inch diameter acoustic device countermeasure (ADC) that is launched from submarines to defend against incoming torpedoes.
The device is named "ADC MK5", and Leidos will also provide "technical and non-recurring engineering services such as software and hardware development".
"We employ a different mindset on how to keep up in a dynamic and rapidly changing defence environment where world-class systems are the only option for our defence customers to accomplish their missions," said Leidos defence group president Gerry Fasano.
"This win opens a new market for our organisation in underwater sensors, and our focus is to provide the right combination of technical depth and customer insight to deliver the right solutions within challenging operational environments."
The project is part of the US Navy's Next Generation Countermeasure program, which aims to replace ADC MK3 systems with newer technologies.
Work for the project will take place in Washington, Northern Virginia, Ohio, California and Florida.