Following Senator Payne's visit to Jordan, the ministers discussed regional security and the nations' shared commitment to defeating Daesh.
Both Australia and Qatar are part of the Counter-Daesh Alliance, which was formed in September 2014 with the aim of degrading and ultimately defeating Daesh.
The coalition is made up of 68 members hoping to dismantle Daesh's networks and counter its global ambitions.
In February 2017, representatives from the alliance met in Brussels to review the progress of the military campaign and discuss the next steps.
While in Qatar, Senator Payne also met with Australian personnel based at the Combined Air and Space Operations Centre (CAOC).
The CAOC is the coalition’s headquarters for the air campaign across the Middle East region providing command and control for all coalition air operations over Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan.
The CAOC plans and monitors coalition operations as well as deconflicting aircraft and managing air-to-air refuelling.
"Australian personnel embedded in the CAOC ensure we are able to work seamlessly with our coalition partners in the fight against Daesh in Iraq and Syria," Minister Payne said.